Edible Oils Fat and Allied Products

We’ve seen cases of oil adulteration in the past, where groundnut oils contained unreported smaller amounts of cheaper oils like soybean oil. Adulteration detection is critical in modern times, which is why precise analytical techniques have been created and a lot more research is being done to improve detection efficiency.

Long-term storage of fat and oil-containing foods makes them more sensitive to auto-oxidation, which results in unattractive colour and flavour by-products. Free Fatty Acids are one of the most critical elements impacting the quality and value of oils (FFA). These are prone to oxidation, resulting in rancidity. Hydrolytic rancidity can occur when meals containing oils and fats are cooked at extremely high temperatures. The texture and consistency of food products are determined by the congeal points, viscosity, cloud point, melting point, and other properties of fats and oils. Chemical factors such as iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value, and others impact the stability of oils during storage and cooking.

Regarding the safety of refined oils, the FSSAI’s Scientific Panel on Oils and Fats concluded that refined oils are completely safe to use as cooking oil, and that refining minimises the risk of aflatoxin poisoning. When high levels of TPC (Total Polar Compounds) are consumed over an extended period of time, they can induce hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, and liver problems, among other things. TPC must be kept within a 25% limit, according to FSSAI standards.

As a result, food quality testing is critical for guaranteeing the safety and quality of food products containing oils and fats. The ability to assess the degree of deterioration in cooking oil throughout storage and cooking aids in the preservation of finished product quality.

Recent events have highlighted the importance of food safety, prompting the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to tighten its regulations and standards for oil and fat testing. To improve product quality, the FSSAI Act made food testing, shelf-life analysis, nutritional labelling, and sensory evaluation mandatory.


  • Edible Oils (raw to processed)
  • Modified Fats (Vanaspati, Bakery shortening, Margarine, etc.)
  • Anhydrous Milk Fat (Cow ghee, Buffalo ghee, etc.)


  • Physical & Chemical Analysis (appearance, separated water, added coloring & flavoring substances, refractive index, iodine value, saponification value, specific gravity, etc.)
  • Nutritional Analysis & Labelling (energy, protein, carbohydrates, total sugar, etc.)
  • Adulterants (presence of rice bran oil, presence of kusum oil, test for the presence of oil soluble colours in oil, test for cottonseed oil (halphen test), test for sesame seed oil (baudouins test), hexabromide test, polybromide test, etc.)
  • Fatty acid profile & Trans fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, etc.)
  • Vitamins (A, D, E, K, B-Complex)
  • Minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, etc.)
  • Mycotoxins (total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, etc.)
  • Heavy metal residues (lead, tin, arsenic, copper, cadmium, etc.)
  • Naturally Occurring Toxic Substances (NOTS like hydrocyanic acid, agaric acid, hypercine, etc.)
  • Natural & Synthetic Colors (canthaxanthin, annatto extract (bixin), beta apo-8 carotenal, beta carotene, brilliant blue FCF, caramel colors (ammonium sulphite process), etc.)
  • Melamine
  • Additives (guaiac resin, iso propyl citrate mixture, citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol, phosphoric acid, polydimethylsiloxane (DMPS), lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol (LACTEM), mono and diglycerides of fatty acids, polyglycerol esters of fatty acid, etc.)
  • Pesticide Residues
  • Stability Testing (using Rancimat)
  • Microbiological parameters (total plate count, total coliform count, yeast and mould count, salmonella and shigella, E. coli, etc.)